• Optimal design of mountain bicycle based on biomechanics
    To achieve better cycling performance and vibration comfort of mountain bicycle, the optimization of frame structural parameters and rear suspension scale parameters is investigated based on …more
    Bu, Yan, Huang Tian, Xiang Zhongxia, Wu Xiaofan, and Chen Chun
  • Mechanical behavior of Muscles during flexion and extension of lower limb on variable age group by using BRG.LifeMOD
    The main objective of this paper is to find out the muscle which plays a major role during flexion and extension on models of different age groups and the extent of mechanical deformation which …more
    Sahai, Nitin, P.Tewari Ravi, and Singh Lokesh
  • Simulation of the Gait of a Patient Specific Model of Post Polio Residual Paralysis (PPRP): effect of the orthosis.
    The aim of this present study was to develop a patient specific 3D musculoskeletal model of the Post Polio Residual Paralysis (PPRP) subject. This model will allow the effects of the lower limb …more
    Dao, T. T., Pouletaut P., Marin F., Aufaure P., undefined, and Tho Ho Ba M. C.
  • Computational
    Musculoskeletal Joint Modelling
    The paper investigates and surveys current developments, theories and algorithms developed to drive the core analysis modules of publicly available and possibly industrially leading software used to …more
    Ozada, N., and Esat I.
  • Antero-posterior Placement of Axis of Rotation for a Rotating Platform
    A knee replacement system includes a femoral component including a lateral condylar articulating portion and a medial condylar articulating portion, a tibial tray including an upper articulating …more
    Williams, John L., Gomaa Said T., and Wyss Joseph G.
  • Extensor malalignment arising from femoral component malrotation in knee arthroplasty: Effect of rotating-bearing.
    Background Many patellofemoral complications such as anterior knee pain, subluxation, fracture, wear, and aseptic loosening after total knee arthroplasty are attributed to malrotation of the femoral …more
    D’Lima, D., Colwell CW Jr, and Chen PC
  • Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty (R-TSA) Component Placement Affects Muscle Function
    Reducing the medialization of the glenosphere in R-TSA does not alter mechanical efficiency and may have other advantages, such as reduced notching and maintenance of infraspinatus tension. In …more
    Heinz R Hoenecke, Jr, Flores-Hernaddez Cesar, and D’Lima Darryl D.
  • Detailed spine modeling with LifeMOD
    Patients sitting in a wheelchair may spend hours in a relatively fixed position, with their lower back forced away from its natural lordotic curvature. This prolonged sitting was reported to be linked …more
    Kwang, Tay Shih, Gibson Ian, and Jagdish Bhat Nikhil
  • Multi-body simulation of a canine hind limb: model development, experimental validation and calculation of ground reaction forces
    Among other causes the long-term result of hip prostheses in dogs is determined by aseptic loosening. A prevention of prosthesis complications can be achieved by an optimization of the tribological …more
    Helms, Gabriele, Nolte Ingo, Behrens Bernd-Arno, Stolorz Martin, and Wefstaedt Patrick
  • Experimental and numerical analysis of patello-femoral contact mechanics in TKA
    In total knee replacement, patello-femoral issues are responsible for up to 50% of all revisions. Nevertheless, the mechanics of the patello-femoral joint have not been investigated as well as the …more
    Innocenti, B., Follador M., Salerno M., Bignardi C., Wong P., and Labey L.
  • Evaluation of the Indoor Cycle based on Computer Simulation Method
    The purpose of this study is to evaluate muscular strength which the femoral region as a distance variation between a seat and pedal of indoor cycle during cycle exercise. The muscles measured with …more
    Kim, S. M., Lee S. Y., Yoon S. Y., Lee M. P., and Ro Y. M.
  • Influence of anthropometrical and geometrical parameters of the bones and muscles on musculoskeletal model of the lower limbs
    Dao, T. T., Marin F., and Tho Ho Ba M. C.
  • A three-dimensional model of the boat-oars-rower system using ADAMS and LifeMOD commercial software
    This paper presents a numerical model of the boat–oars–rower system in a three-dimensional multibody dynamics approach using the ADAMS commercial software. The system is composed of four main …more
    Serveto, S., Barre S., Kobus J. – M., and Mariot J. – P.
  • Study of Knee and Hip Joints’ Moment Estimation by Biomechanical Simulation During Various Motion Changes
    In this study, biomechanical parameters of lower limb joints due to motion changes have been estimated to develop the 3-D model that can analyze dynamic gait simulation for wearable walking …more
    Kim, S. M., Lee S. Y., Kang H. C., and Jeong J. H.
  • A Mechatronic Device for the Rehabilitation of Ankle Motor Function
    This paper presents the main results from a research aiming at the design of an electromechanical actuator for use in the rehabilitation of ankle motor function in patients suffering due to …more
    Bucca, Giuseppe, Bezzolato Alberto, Bruni Stefano, and Molteni Franco
  • Innovations: Spring 2009 Annual Report of the Kessler Medical Rehabilitation, Research, and Education Center
    A model is a mathematical representation of a system being studied, whether it is a drug delivery model, an injury progression model or a biomechanical model like the ones used in REAL. The …more
  • Investigation of drivers poses influence to the intervertebral forces in the junction of thoracic and lumbar spinal curves
    Rukuiža, E., and Eidukynas V.
  • Optimal Design and Dynamic Simulation of Mountain Bike with Rear Suspension
    This paper investigates the dynamic design methodology of mountain bikes with rear suspension. Firstly, a multi-rigid body dynamic model of rider and mountain bike coupled system is constructed. The …more
    Yan, Bu, Zhongxia Xiang, Tian Huang, Xu Zhang, and Xinghua Wang
  • Development of discomfort evaluation method for car ingress motion
    Recent improvements in the quality of life have led to a consumer need for emotional quality. This need is regarded as extremely important, particularly for products that require a close interaction …more
    Kim, S. H., and Lee K.
  • Dynamic simulation of universal spacer in Dynesys dynamic stabilization system for human vertebra
    The aim of this study is to analyze the simulated behavior of universal spacer in Dynesys dynamic stabilization system inserted in human vertebra. Dynesys, so-called “Dynamic neutralization …more
    Kim, Sung-Min, Yang In-Chul, Lee Seung-Yeol, and Cho Sung-Youn
  • Articular human joint modelling
    The work reported in this paper encapsulates the theories and algorithms developed to drive the core analysis modules of the software which has been developed to model a musculoskeletal structure of …more
    Esat, Ibrahim I., and Ozada Neviman
  • Computational knee models of mobile bearing implants predict differences in kinematics during simulated squat and lunge deep knee bending activities
    The purpose of this paper was to compare the kinematics of a PFC Sigma® rotating platform posterior cruciate-retaining total knee (DePuy, Warsaw, IN), using computational models of two different …more
    Williams, John L., and Gomaa Said T.
  • The Effect of Patellar Ligament Coronal-Plane Angle on Kinematics Following Fixed Bearing Cruciate Retaining Total Knee Arthroplasty
    Virtual knee models have been created over the years to study artificial knee components in a simulated anatomic environment similar to physical knee simulators. The kinematics of a fixed bearing …more
    Gomaa, Said T., and Williams John L.
  • Estimation, simulation, and experimentation of a fall from bed
    Computer simulations using multibody models have been extensively applied to vehicular crash testing but have rarely been used to investigate falls. This article investigated planar and …more
    Brian W. Schulz, PhD, William E. Lee III PhD, and John D. Lloyd PhD
  • Simulation and Validation of Human Head-neck Multi-body Dynamic Model Based on ADAMS.LifeMOD
    Jing, Zhang, Xu Han, and Guilin Wen
  • Human vibration characteristic and experiment research on man-machine system in dynamic environmentAccording to the design and analysis needs of man-machine interface in mechanical system in dynamic environment, a 4-DOF vertical vibration model of the human upper body of man-machine system is set …moreLinan, Xu, Zhang E., Mingli Liu, Xiaochun Shao, and Fan Zhang2008
  • Study on Impact Analysis of Side Kick in TaekwondoTaekwondo is a martial art form and sport that uses the hands and feet for attack and defense. Taekwondo basic motion is composed of the breaking, competition and poomsea motions. The side kick is one …moreLee, Jung-Hyun, Lee Young-Shin, and Han Kyu-Hyun2008
  • Effect of Vibration Intervention on Leg-press Exercise
    Many studies have emphasized the importance of resistive exercise to maintain a healthy human body, particular in prevention of weakening of physical strength. Recently, some studies advocated that …more
    Cho, Youngkuen, Hwang Seonhong, Min Jinyoung, Kim Youngho, Lim Dohyung, and Kim Hansung
  • Joint Forces when Lifting Heavy Objects
  • Quantifying Human Motion & Force: The Center for Occupational Health and Automobile Manufacturing is a lab studying the mechanics of the human body
    The Center for Occupational Health and Automobile Manufacturing (COHAM) is a laboratory specifically formed to study the biomech-anics of automobile manufacturing. The lab is located right next door …more
    Romeo, Jim
  • Innovations Spring 2008: Annual Report of the Kessler Medical Rehabilitation Research and Education Center
    A model is a mathematical representation of a system being studied, whether it is a drug delivery model, an injury progression model or a biomechanical model like the ones used in REAL. The …more
  • The influence of seat pad stiffness and damping on the intervertebral forces in the junction of thoracic and lumbar spinal curves
    This paper presents the investigation having the purpose to find correlation between intervertebral forces in the junction of thoracic and spinal curves and car seat stiffness and damping under the …more
    Rukuiža, E., Eidukynas V., and Dulevičius J.
  • The influence of contemporary knee design on high flexion: a kinematic comparison with the normal knee
    Although Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) surgery enjoys 90% of outcomes with good to excellent results, some patients have difficulty adjusting their gait to accommodate the new articulations inherent …more
    Morra, Edward A., Rosca Mircea, Greenwald Jonathan F. I., and Greenwald Seth A.
  • Simulator compares knee implants
    Computer simulation may hold one key toward streamlining the process of testing new orthopaedic devices, according to Edward A. Morra, MSME, and A. Seth Greenwald, DPhil Oxon. Their display at the …more
    Pollack, Peter
  • Functional Body Strength: A South African Approach to Gender Differences
    The process of scientifically developing selection screening or test batteries for jobs that require high physical demands and specific human characteristics or capabilities has received increasing …more
    Nolte, H. W., and Bredenkamp K.
  • Energy Returning Ankle Foot Orthosis
    Individuals with walking disabilities, as a result of cerebral palsy (CP), stroke, muscular dystrophy, brain injury, and many other conditions, are often prescribed ankle foot orthoses (AFOs) to aid …more
    Bennett, Bradford
  • Biomechanische Modellbildung im Sport (Biomechanical Modeling in Sport)
    The presentation gives an overview of modeling, simulation and animation in biomechanics, as applicable to sport, and presents selected software tools….more
    Baca, Arnold
  • Dynamic Analysis of Seatbelt Systems with Anti-inertial Release Mechanisms
    In order to prevent the uncontrolled release of seatbelt buckles due to high acceleration caused by pre-tensioners, anti-g buckles that have pendulum-shaped g-masses to block the releasing motion are …more
    Kuk, M. G., Kwon S. J., and Tak T. O.
  • Optimizing Total Knee Replacement Kinematics
    Design optimization is a procedure for getting the best (optimum) design with respect to a single or a set of specific performance criteria (objective functions) through the systematic and iterative …more
    Willing, Ryan, and Kim Il Yong
  • Investigation of Robot-Human Impact
    <p> Due to the introduction of assistant robot systems, the complete separation of the human from the robot’s workspace is no longer the only option for operation. Therefore, the discussion on …more
    Oberer, S., Malosio M., and Schraft R. D.
  • Design of an Active Walking-aid for Elderly People
    This paper describes the preliminary design of a light, high stability, robotic system for elderly assistance. The mechanisms used for such assisting devices must exhibit complex mechanical functions …more
    Mederic, P., Pasqui V., Plumet F., and Bidaud PH.
  • Mass Customisation of Medical Devices and Implants: State of the Art and Future Directions
    The medical field is one in which the need for customisation can be clear cut, as providing tailored devices and implants for unique physiologies can provide for a better overall treatment than the …more
    Dalgarno, K. W., Pallari J. H., Woodburn J., Xiao K., Wood D. J., Goodridge R. D., and Ohtsuki C.
  • Angular Momentum Control of Forward Dynamic Walking
    Stable walking, in particular the balance and postural stability during gait, has been widely studied in robotics. However, only a few studies have used angular momentum about the center of mass (CoM) …more
    Ledoux, Alexandre, Bennett Bradford, Sheth Pradip, Russell Shawn, and Abel Mark
  • Multi Body Solid Dynamic Model and Its Application in Human Kinematic Analysis
    A validated multi body solid dynamic human model of the lower extremities was developed in MSC.ADAMS. Inverse and forward dynamic analysis in human kinematics simulations such as walking and …more
    Li, J. Z., Tan S. H. N., Cheong C. H., and Lee P. V. S.
  • Biomechanical Analysis on the Foot under Normal and Abnormal Gait for Orthotics Design
    The foot plays an important role in supporting the body and keeping body balance. An abnormal walking style interferes with both balance and foot function. Foot orthotics designed with consideration …more
    Lee, Jae-Ok, Lee Young-Shin, Lee Se-Hoon, Choi Young-Jin, and Park Soung-Ha
  • Kinematic of Total Knee Replacement: Indirect Comparison of Virtual Knee Simulation and In Vivo Fluoroscopy During Deep Knee Bending
    The kinematic behavior of four types of total knee implants was examined with a virtual knee simulator throughout one cycle of deep knee bending. Internal rotation of the tibia relative to the femur …more
    Gomaa, Said T., and Williams John L.
  • Tibial Component Posterior Slope Influences Knee Kinematics in Cruciate-Retaining Fixed-bearing Total Knee Arthroplasty
    The degree of sagittal slope of the tibial components of total knee implants varies greatly, depending on implant design, surgical skill, problems with instrumentation, patient anatomy and surgical …more
    Gomaa, Said T., and Williams John L.
  • Dynamic Simulation of Cervical Spine following Single-Level Cervical Disc Replacement
    The aim of the present study is to analyze the simulated behavior of the Functional Spinal Unit (FSU) with a disc implant inserted in the C5-C6 segment, compare the results to the literature and use …more
    de Jongh, Cornel U., Basson Anton H., and Scheffer Cornie
  • Flexible multibody simulation approach in the analysis of tibial strain during walking
    Strains within the bone tissue play a major role in bone (re)modeling. These small strains can be assessed using experimental strain gauge measurements, which are challenging and invasive. Further, …more
    Nazer, Al R., Rantalainen T., Heinonen A., Sievanen H., and Mikkola A.
  • Advances in Knee Arthroplasty for Younger Patients: Traditional Knee Arthroplasty is Prologue, the Future for Knee Arthroplasty Is Prescient
    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) was a remarkable development in orthopedic surgery. Joint arthroplasty and arthroscopy were perhaps the greatest innovations in orthopedics in the 20th century and …more
    Engh, Gerard
  • Biofeedback for robotic gait rehabilitation
    Background Development and increasing acceptance of rehabilitation robots as well as advances in technology allow new forms of therapy for patients with neurological disorders. Robot-assisted gait …more
    Lünenburger, L., Colombo G., and Riener R.
  • The Application of Lifemod in Biomechanics Of Sports
     Yang, Su, Jing-guang Qian, and Ya-wei Song
  • Analyse biomécanique chez l’artiste de cirque pour l’activité du cadre aérien.
    The activities of circus in particular for air specialities can cause pathologies of the knee having effects on the career of these students. <br><br> The activity of the air structure …more
    Agnesina, Guillaume, Talbi Nabil, Taïar Redha, Mostefaoui M’hamed, and Perugia Alexandre Del
  • Model of the knee for understanding the squat movement biomechanics
    By means of MSC Adams- BRG LifeMOD software, a three dimensional lower extremity model has been developed in this study. This model take into account 16 muscles, 4 ligaments, 2 tendons in order to …more
    Agnesïna, Guillaume, Taiar Redha, Bertucci William, and Lodini Alain
  • Critical Evaluation of Predictive Modelling of a Cervical Disc Desing
    This thesis is concerned with the simulation of the in vivo biomechanical performance of a cervical disc replacement. A representative (averaged) maximum range of motion (ROM), determined by …more
    de Jongh, Cornel
  • Collision Simulation of a Body-seat System
    This paper describes the biomechanics simulation software ADAMS / LifeMOD characteristics, using the software, the establishment of a human – chair system multi-rigid body dynamics model, computer …more
    Jing, Zhang, and Xu Han
  • LifeMOD Modeling and Simulation of Swimmers Impulse During a Grab Start
    This study proposes an approach for 3D modeling and simulation of swimmers impulse during a grab start. Four national level swimmers were investigated. For every swimmer, a 3D model was generated in …more
    Agnesina, Guillaume, Taiar Redha, Houel Nicolas, Guelton Kevin, Hellard Philippe, and Toshev Yuli
  • Effect of Guided Knee Motion and High Flexion TKA on Kinematics, Implant Stresses, and Wear
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate knee kinematics, UHMWPE stresses, and wear associated with a guided motion design. Knee kinematics and kinetics were assessed using a virtual lower leg …more
    Michael D. Ries, MD, Jan M.K. Victor MD, Johan Bellemans MD, Jason Otto MA, McKinnon Brian W., Amit Parikh BS, Sprague Jeff A., and Abraham Salehi PhD
  • Engineering of Sport 6: Volume 2: Developments for Disciplines
    The aim of the present study was to validate a full-body computer simulation of a golfer’s swing for driving clubs. An elite male golfer performed 24 shots in a laboratory, comprised of 8 trials …more
    Kenny, Ian C., Wallace Eric S., Brown Desmond, and Otto Steve R.
  • Biomechanics Modeling of Human Musculoskeletal System Using ADAMS Multibody Dynamics Package
    The aim of our study was to estimate the muscle skeletal load of human activities in the car industry. MSC Adams LifeModeler was used to build a mechanical model for a work place simulation where an …more
    Veloso, A., Esteves G., Silva S., Ferreira C., and Brandao F.
  • Design and Research of Biomechanical Models of Human with Joint Replacements
    The aim of this thesis is to research the human biomechanical model and to determine the effect of hip joint replacement on human locomotion-support apparatus and movement functions. The following …more
    Kazlauskiene, Kristina
  • Modelling with BRG.LifeMOD in Sport Science
    In addition to an athlete’s conditioning, his performance is highly influenced by the method of executing movements. Sport science benefits greatly from using computers to model and simulate …more
    Hofman, Martin, Dänhardt Maik, Betzler Nils, Witte Kerstin, and Nusser Jürgen Edelmann-
  • Active Human Response to a Vibration Environment
    <p>Human computer models can be developed to predict human subsystem vibration frequencies for a particular environment, a particular posture and particular interface configuration between the …more
    McGuan, Shawn P.
  • Towards the Development of Advanced Exoskeletons for Supporting the Human Activities
    <p>Exoskeletons find application in many fields and can be divided into three main categories: <ol> <li>haptic interfaces;</li> <li>power …more
    Carrozza, M. C., Cattin E., Roccella S., Sardellitti I., Vacalebri P., Eder C., Aquilano M., Vitello N., Persichetti A., Vecchi F., et al.
  • LifeMOD modelling of a complete human body: a walk with a right knee varus and valgus movement
     Agnesina, G., and Taiar R.
  • Design Rationale: Smith&Nephew JOURNEY Bi-Cruciate Stabilized Knee System
    While literature reports good outcomes for many current knee systems, clinical scores do not necessarily reflect patient satisfaction. While this dissatisfaction could be attributed to abnormal …more
  • Biomechanical Effects of the Weight of Side Loaded Carriage in Walking – Correlation between Body Center of Mass (COM) and Joint Moments
    This study investigated biomechanical effects on the body center of mass(COM) and joint moments of lower extremity as the weight of sided load in walking. Also the present study showed correlation …more
    Choi, Hyunho, Hwang Sungjae, Cho Yongkun, Myimg S., Kim Hansung, and Kim Youngho
  • Smith & Nephew Knee product review
     Durniak, Todd, and McKinnon Brian
  • Structural Analysis of Human Body Impact
    The impact of firing a rifle on the human body is affected by human posture. The human model of shooting posture is defined by the action of the shooter. The shooting impact of the rifle is …more
    Le, Young-Shin, Choi Young-Jin, Lee Se-Hoon, Chae Je-Wook, and Choe Eui-Jung
  • Human motion analysis of the elliptical machine for functional assessment of sliding
    The purpose of this study was to compare two different mechanism designs of elliptical exerciser using motion analysis system(Vicon 460) for the evaluation and design of the elliptical …more
    Kai, Xuzhen
  • Evaluation of wheelchair occupant safety in frontal & side impact of wheelchair loaded vehicle by Computer Simulation Analysis Method (Adams+Lifemod)
     Kim, S. M., Yang I. C., Park S. Y., and Lee M. P.
  • Validation of a full-body computer simulation model for the golf drive
    Computer simulation models permit the study of the complex interactions between biomechanical variables, yet their application to the scientific study of the golf swing is still in an early phase of …more
    Kenny, Ian C., Wallace Eric S., Otto Steve R., and Brown Desmond
  • A Study on the Human Impulse Characteristics Of the Standing Shooting Posture
    The rifle impact on human body is affected by the posture of human when shooting. The interaction human-rifle system has an influence on a firing accuracy. In this paper, the impact analysis of a …more
    Lee, Young-Shin, Choi Young-Jin, Han Kyu-Hyun, Chae Je-Wook, Choi Eui-Jung, and Kim In-Woo
  • Tibiofemoral movement in the living knee. A study of weight bearing and non-weight bearing knee kinematics using ‘interventional’ MRI
    The aim of this study was to image tibio-femoral movement during flexion in the living knee. Ten loaded male Caucasian knees were initially studied using MRI, and the relative tibio-femoral motions, …more
    Johal, P., Williams A., Wragg P., Hunt D., and Gedroyc W.
  • Modeling Alpine Skiing using LifeMOD
     Rey, Francoise
  • Human Head Neck Response in Frontal, Lateral and Real End Impact Loading: modelling and validation
     van der Horst, MJ
  • A stochastic model of human gait dynamics
    We present a stochastic model of gait rhythm dynamics, based on transitions between different “neural centers”, that reproduces distinctive statistical properties of normal human walking. By …more
    Ashkenazy, Y., Hausdorff JM, Ivanov PC, and Stanley HE
  • Response time is more important than walking speed for the ability of older adults to avoid a fall after a trip
    We previously reported that the probability of an older adult recovering from a forward trip and using a “lowering” strategy increases with decreased walking velocity and faster response time. To …more
    van den Bogert, AJ, Pavol MJ, and Grabiner MD
  • Dynamic Compensations in the Gait of a Patient with Quadriceps Weakness
    Because the human musculoskeletal system acts as a set of interconnected segments, forces produced by muscles or connective tissues crossing a joint will induce accelerations at all other joints. …more
    Kepple, T., Siegel Lohmann K., and Stanhope S.
  • Late versus Early Engagement of Posterior Stabilized Prostheses: Effect on Extensor Moment Arm and Resultant Extensor Loads
    Two mathematical posterior stabilized knee models were constructed to investigate the effects of late versus early engagement of the cam-post mechanism on femoral rollback and extensor mechanism …more
    Metzger, Robert, Lombardi Adolph V., Mallory Thomas H., Fada Robert A., Hartman Jodi F., Adams Joanne B., and McGuan Shawn P.
  • Human Modeling – From Bubblemen to Skeletons
    This paper introduces a novel human modeling system utilizing the ADAMS (Mechanical Dynamics Inc.) multibody simulation program. The FIGURE Human Modeling system is a plug-in to ADAMS, which provides …more
    McGuan, Shawn
  • A Study of a Human Model Augmented with Stilts in a Work Environment
    This paper describes the study of an augmented human model performing a task in a work environment. Stilts, commonly used for installing drywalls in the construction industry, were chosen to be the …more
    Ma, Matthew, and McGuan Shawn
  • The shapes and relative movements of the femur and tibia in the unloaded cadaveric knee: a study using MRI as an anatomic tool
    Built on a solid foundation of basic anatomy, pathology, and diagnostic techniques, this best-selling reference offers comprehensive coverage of value to anyone involved in the diagnosis and treatment …more
    Pinskerova, V., Iwaki M., and Freeman M.
  • Human Anthropological and Bio-mechanical Model of Human-Rifle System
     Chae, JW
  • Reflex receptive fields for human withdrawal reflexes elicited by non-painful and painful electrical stimulation of the foot sole
    Objectives: Human withdrawal reflex receptive fields (RRFs) were assessed for 4 different electrical stimulus intensities, ranging from below the pain threshold (PTh) to up to two times the PTh …more
    Andersen, OK, Sonnenborg F., and Arendt-Nielsen L.
  • Is the recovery of stepping following spinal cord injury mediated by modifying existing neural pathways or by generating new pathways? A perspective
    The recovery of stepping ability following a spinal cord injury may be achieved by restoring anatomical connectivity within the spinal cord. However, studies of locomotor recovery in animals with …more
    De Leon, Ray D., Roy Roland R., and Edgerton Reggie V.
  • Retraining the injured spinal cord
    The present review presents a series of concepts that may be useful in developing rehabilitative strategies to enhance recovery of posture and locomotion following spinal cord injury. First, the loss …more
    Edgerton, V., de Leon R., Harkema S., Hodgson J., London N., Reinkensmeyer D., Roy R., Talmadge R., Tillakaratne N., Timoszyk W., et al.
  • Reflex adaptations during treadmill walking with increased body load
    Load dependent reflex adaptations were studied in healthy subjects walking on a split-belt treadmill. Compensatory reflex responses were elicited in the right leg extensor muscles during mid-stance by …more
    Fouad, K., Bastiaanse CM, and V Dietz.
  • Spinal circuitry of sensorimotor control of locomotion
    During locomotion many segmental hindlimb reflex pathways serve not only to regulate the excitability of local groups of motoneurones, but also to control the basic operation of the central …more
    McCrea, D.
  • Biomechanics of the cervical spine Part 2. Cervical spine soft tissue responses and biomechanical modeling
    Objective. The responses and contributions of the soft tissue structures of the human neck are described with a focus on mathematical modeling. Spinal ligaments, intervertebral discs, zygapophysial …more
    Yoganandan, N., Kumaresan S., and Pintar FA
  • Effects of shoe sole construction on skeletal motion during running
    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to quantify effects of shoe sole modification on skeletal kinematics of the calcaneus and tibia during the stance phase of running. Methods: Intracortical bone …more
    Stacoff, A., Reinschillidt C., Nigg BM, van den Bogert AJ, Lundberg A., Denoth J., and Stussi E.
  • How The Science and Engineering of Spaceflight Contribute to Understanding the Plasticity of Spinal Cord Injury
    NASA-catalyzed collaborations have benefited the spinal cord rehabilitation program at UCLA in fundamental science and in the application of expertise and technologies originally developed for the …more
    V. Reggie Edgerton, Ph.D., Roland R. Roy Ph.D., John A. Hodgson Ph.D., James Weiss M. S., Michael Storrie-Lombardi M. D., McGuan Shawn P., Susan J. Harkema Ph.D., Bruce Dobkin M. D., Alan Garfinkel Ph.D., E. Konigsberg P. E., et al.
  • Modeling The Neuromechanical Events of Locomotion at Varying Gravitational Levels
    A computer model that allows accurate simulations of bipedal and quadrapedal locomotion at varying gravitational levels and speeds can be an effective research tool in efforts to identify the critical …more
    Day, Kathleen M., Monti Ryan J., Vallance Kevin, McGuan Shawn, Roy Roland R., and Edgerton Reggie V.
  • Load-Regulating Mechanisms in Gait and Posture:Comparative Aspects
    Load-Regulating Mechanisms in Gait and Posture: Comparative Aspects. Physiol. Rev. 80: 83–133, 2000.—How is load sensed by receptors, and how is this sensory information used to …more
    Duysens, J., Clarac F., and Cruse H.
  • Using robots to train spinally-transected rats to recover hindlimb stepping
     London, NJS, de Leon RD, Timoszyk WK, Joynes R., Roy RR, Reinkensmeyer DJ, and Edgerton VR
  • A robotic stepper for retraining locomotion in spinal-injured rodents
    We describe the design and testing of a robotic system to assist locomotion training of spinal-injured rodents. The goal of the system is to control and quantify spatialtemporal patterns of …more
    Kwak, E., Minakata K., Edgerton V., Reinkensmeyer’ DJ, Timoszyk WK, de Leon RD, and Joynes R.
  • Muscular Responses and Movement Strategies During Stumbling Over Obstacles
    Although many studies have investigated reflexes after stimulation of either cutaneous or proprioceptive afferents, much less is known about responses after more natural perturbations, such as …more
    Schillings, AM, Van Wezel BM, Mulder TH, and Duysens J.
  • Learning of action through adaptive combination of motor primitives
    Understanding how the brain constructs movements remains a fundamental challenge in neuroscience. The brain may control complex movements through flexible combination of motor primitives1, where each …more
    Thoroughman, KA, and Shadmehr R.
  • Pressure measurements in the spinal canal of post-mortem human subjects during rear-end impact and correlation of results to the neck injury criterion
    The aim of this study is to validate the pressure effect theory on human beings during a realistic rear-end impact and to correlate the neck injury criterion to pressure in the spinal canal. Sled …more
    Boström, O., Svensson MAts, Eichberger A., Darok M., Steffan H., and Leinzinger P.
  • Qualitative Analysis of Neck Kinematics During Low-Speed Rear-End Impact
     Luan, F.
  • Reduction of neck injuries and their societal costs in rear end collisions
     Wismans, JSHM
  • A mechanical model to determine the influence of masses and mass distribution on the impact force during running
    Simple spring–damper–mass models have been widely used to simulate human locomotion. However, most previous models have not accounted for the effect of non-rigid masses (wobbling masses) on impact …more
    Liu, W., and Nigg B.
  • Assessment of perceived traumatic injury hazards during drywall taping and sanding
    The objective of this study was to identify the drywall finishing tasks which are directly perceived as hazardous by workers. A questionnaire survey was conducted to evaluate workers’ perceived …more
    Pan, CS, Chiou SS, Hsiao H., Becker P., and Akladios M.
  • Assessment of perceived traumatic injury hazards during drywall hanging
    Workers who handle massive and bulky drywall sheets are at a high risk of traumatic injuries. The objective of this study is to identify the drywall handling tasks and activities which are directly …more
    CS, Pan, SS Chiou, Hsiao H., Wassell JT, and Keane PR
  • Modeling the Neuromechanical Events of Locomotion at Varying Gravitational Levels
    The purpose of the present study was to determine the feasibility of using a neuromechanical model of human locomotion based on a model previously published by Taga et al. to simulate gait at various …more
    Day, MK, Monti RJ, Vallance K., McGuan S., Roy RR, and Edgerton VR
  • Loading Evaluation of Knee Joint During Walking Using the Next Generation Knee Simulator
     Maletsky, L. P., and Hillberry BM
  • Development and Verification of a Virtual Knee Simulator for TKR Evaluation
    Joint kinematics and kinetics are to a large degree responsible for the performance and long-term function of total knee replacements (TKR). A number of experimental knee simulators have been …more
    Rullkoetter, P. J., McGuan S., and Maletsky L. P.
  • Joint Moment Contributions to Segmental Power During Walking
    The purpose of the present study was to characterize the role of lower extremity muscle groups in controlling movement of the entire kinetic chain using an approach that can follow the energy flow …more
    Siegel, Karen Lohmann, Kepple Thomas M., and Stanhope Steven J.
  • Modeling the Relative Compensatory Ability of Lower Extremity Muscle Groups during Normal Walking
    During gait, people with the loss of function in one or more muscle groups will often use adaptive strategies based on the ability of other muscle groups to accelerate the joints they do not cross. …more
    Kepple, T.
  • Redefining the Role of Muscle Groups during Gait: Dynamic Compensations for Common Musculoskeletal Impairments
    This study describes the often misunderstood function of lower extremity muscles in the closed kinetic chain during gait, identifies some of the closed kinetic chain compensations available to …more
    Thomas M. Kepple, MA, Lynn H. Gerber MD, and Karen Lohmann Siegel MA PT
  • Design of Dynamic Absorbing System Considering Human Model Characteristics
    [not available]…more
    Park, YP
  • Sensorimotor transformation in cat nociceptive withdrawal reflex system
    The withdrawal reflex system of higher vertebrates has been extensively used as a model for spinal sensorimotor integration, nociceptive processing and plasticity. In the rat, the nociceptive …more
    Levinsson, A., Garwicz M., and Schouenborg J.
  • Context-dependent reflex control: some insights into the role of balance
    Recent research suggests that the balance requirements of a task dictate the reflexive response. However, these observations were inferred indirectly from either different tasks or different phases of …more
    Rietdyk, S., and Patla AE
  • Intersegmental Dynamics Are Controlled by Sequential Anticipatory, Error Correction, and Postural Mechanisms
    Intersegmental dynamics are controlled by sequential anticipatory, error correction, and positional control mechanisms. The purpose of this study is to examine the mechanisms underlying control of …more
    Sainburg, RL, Ghez C., and Kalakanis D.
  • Widespread short-latency stretch reflexes and their modulation during stumbling over obstacles
    The present study investigated whether short-latency stretch reflexes are present during human stumbling reactions. While subjects walked on a treadmill, the forward sway of the foot was unexpectedly …more
    Schillings, AM, Van Wezel BM, Mulder TH, and Duysens J.
  • Motion analysis of cervical vertebrae during whiplash loading
    Study Design. The motion of each cervical vertebra during simulated rear-end car collisions was analyzed. Objectives. To clarify the mechanism of zygapophysial joint injury during whiplash loading. of …more
    Kaneoka, K., Ono K., and Inami S.
  • Three-dimensional computer simulation of gait
     Anderson, FC, and MG Pandy
  • Animation of human walking in virtual environments
     Chung, Sk, and Hahn JK
  • Development and Verification of a Virtual Knee Simulator for TKR Evaluation
    Joint kinematics and kinetics are to a large degree responsible for the performance and long-term function of total knee replacements (TKR). A number of experimental knee simulators have been …more
    Rullkoetter, P. J., SP McGuan., and Maletsky L. P.
  • Total Knee System Performance Measurement through Computerized Intrinsic Stability Testing
    Restoration of normal knee joint function through surgical reconstruction is dependent upon load sharing between the implant, surrounding ligaments and other supporting soft tissue structures. …more
    McGuan, S., Jasty Dr. Murali, and Kaufman Michael
  • A Primer for Understanding Joint Kinetics
    This course provides a review of the mathematical techniques used to derive kinetic data and to present implications that the mathematical techniques can have in data interpretation. The course …more
    Kepple, Thomas M., and Haideri Nasreen F.
  • Locomotor capacity attributable to step training versus spontaneous recovery following spinalization in cats
     de Leon, RD, Hodgson JA, Roy RR, and Edgerton VR
  • Locomotor pattern in paraplegic patients: training effects and recovery of spinal cord function
    Recent studies have shown that a locomotor pattern can be induced and utilized by paraplegic patients under conditions of body unloading using a moving treadmill. The present study investigated the …more
    Dietz, V., Wirz M., Curt A., and Colombo G.
  • A model of the neuro-musculo-skeletal system for anticipatory adjustment of human locomotion during obstacle avoidance.
    Theoretical studies on human locomotion have shown that a stable and flexible gait emerges from the dynamic interaction between the rhythmic activity of a neural system composed of a neural rhythm …more
    Taga, G.
  • A lumped parameter model of the human head and neck with active muscles
     Brelin-Fornari, JM
  • Cervical spine muscle. Final Report F.2c
     Myers, BS
  • Biomechanical assessment of human cervical spine ligaments
    There is an increasing need to accurately define the soft tissue components of the human cervical spine in order to develop and exercise mathematical analogs such as the finite element model. …more
    Yogananda, N., Pintar FA, Kumaresan S., and Elhagediab A.
  • In Vivo Muscle Force-Length Behavior During Steady-Speed Hopping in Tammar Wallabies
    Moderate to large macropodids can increase their speed while hopping with little or no increase in energy expenditure. This has been interpreted by some workers as resulting from elastic energy …more
    Biewener, AA, Konieczynski DD, and Baudinette RV
  • Optimizing orthotic designs with FEA
    Shawn McGuan, a biomechanics research scientist at Mechanical Dynamics, worked closely with Konantz to customize ADAMS for orthotic-design applications. The resulting package simulates …more
    Deitz, Dan
  • Relative Contributions of the lower extremity joint moments to forward progression and support during gait
    A method, which was found to be accurate within 0.54 m/s<sup>2</sup>, was developed to estimate the relative contributions of the net joint moments to forward progression and support in …more
    Kepple, Thomas M., Siegel Karen Lohmann, and Stanhope Steven J.
  • Effects of rifle weight and handling length on shooting performance
    The effects of rifle design parameters on shooting performance were explored in this study. Twelve subjects, all right handed experienced marksmen, were recruited for the experiments. In the first …more
    Yuan, CK, and Lee YH
  • Does motor learning occur in the spinal cord?
    Edgerton, VR, Roy RR, and de RD Leon
  • Positive Force Feedback Control of Muscles
    This study was prompted by recent evidence for the existence of positive force feedback in feline locomotor control. Our aim was to establish some basic properties of positive force feedback in …more
    Gillard, D., Bennett D., and Prochazka A.
  • Quantification of the hindlimb extensor thrust response in rats.
    This report describes a procedure for measuring the extensor thrust response (ETR) and summarizes the results of initial validation experiments using adult Long-Evans rats. The ETR can be quickly …more
    Ross, JF, Handley DE, Fix AS, Lawhorn GT, and Carr GJ
  • Cervical Injury Mechanism Based on the Analysis of Human Cervical Vertebral Motion and Head-Neck-Torso Kinematics During Low Speed Rear Impacts
     Ono, K., and et al
  • New three dimensional kinematic and dynamic model of lower limb
     Mun, JH, Freeman JS, Lim OK, and Rim K.
  • Effect of reduced gravity on the preferred walk-run transition speed
    We investigated the effect of reduced gravity on the human walk-run gait transition speed and interpreted the results using an inverted-pendulum mechanical model. We simulated reduced gravity using an …more
    Kram, R., Domingo A., and Ferris DP
  • Computer Modelling of Articular Contact for Assessing Total Knee Replacement Constraint Criteria
    Differences exist amongst patients receiving total knee replacements (TKR). Three-dimensional computer simulations are being developed into authoritative tools for assessing joint kinematics. This …more
    Masson, M., McGuan S. P., Bushelow M., and Dumbleton J.
  • Personalized Musculoskeletal Human Models for Use in Dynamic Gait Simulation for Clinical and Sports Applications
    The author used musculoskeletal modeling to advance the current technology of gait simulation into a general clinical tool for the health care industry, a way to evaluate athletic performance and …more
    McGuan, S.
  • Exploring Human Adaptation using Optimized, Dynamic Human Models
    Classic inverse/dynamics methods fall short in providing a methodology which allows the human model to adapt to a change in environment or equipment. This paper introduces a dynamic human model with …more
    McGuan, S.
  • Exploring Human Adaptation using Ultrasonic Measurement Techniques and Optimized, Dynamic Human Neck Models
    This project introduces a new body motion data acquisition technology which is translated into a sophisticated computer model of the human neck. The ultrasonic device captures the changing of the …more
    McGuan, Shawn, and Friedrichs Arnd
  • A Study of Measurement on Range of Arm Joint Motion of Korean Male in Twenties
    [not provided]…more
    Lee, YS, Lee SK, Kim CJ, and Park Sj
  • Mechanically induced stumbling during human treadmill walking
    A new method to study the reactions to unexpected mechanical perturbations during human walking on a treadmill is presented. Perturbations consisted of an obstruction of the forward swinging foot …more
    Schillings, AM, Van Wezel BM, and Duysens J.
  • Mathematical Head-Neck Model for acceleration Impacts
    De Jager, MK
  • Accurate measurement of three-dimensional knee replacement kinematics using single-plane fluoroscopy
    A simple extension of a previously reported object recognition technique has been used to implement a six-degree-of-freedom position/orientation estimator for the measurement of knee replacement …more
    Banks, SA, and Hodge WA
  • A model of the neuro-musculo-skeletal system for human locomotion II. Real-time adaptability under various constraints
    Adaptive gaits of humans were produced as a result of emergent properties of a model based on the neurophysiology of the central pattern generator and the biomechanics of the human musculoskeletal …more
    Taga, G.
  • Direct dynamics simulation of the impact phase in heel-toe running
     Gerritsen KG, van den Bogert AJ, and Nigg BM
  • Quantitative measurement of stability in human gait through computer simulation and Floquet analysis
    The purpose of this investigation was to develop and test quantitative measures to assess the dynamic stability of human locomotion in normal and pathologic gait. Through computer simulation the …more
    Scheiner, A., Ferencz DC, and Chizeck HJ
  • A Unique Method for Deriving Joint Compliances from Laboratory Data for Lower Extremity Simulation
    A computer model of the human leg and foot was generated to explore the kinematic and kinetic properties of the human leg and foot during a drop landing. Experimental data from an actual drop landing …more
    McGuan, S. P., and Gutkowski L.
  • An Approach for a Detailed Analytical Model of the Human Lower Extremity During a Drop Landing
    Experimental data from a drop landing was used to generate a computer model of the human leg and foot. The model was used to investigate the effects of mechanical and geometric characteristics of …more
    McGuan, Shawn, Gutkowski L., and Liu Q.
  • Adaptations To Changing Speed In Human Locomotion: Speed Of Transition Between Walking And Running
    The transition speed between walking and running was determined in 18 healthy males (23-38 years) of various statures (range of leg length 0.86-1.09 m) during acceleration and deceleration of …more
    Thorstensson A, and Roberthson H.
  • Biomechanics of Running Shoes
     Nigg,(ed.) B. M.
  • Compensatory movements following gait perturbations: changes in cinematic and muscular activation patterns.
    The present study was designed to investigate the neuronal control and biomechanical effects of stumbling reactions. To induce these perturbations, a specially prepared treadmill was used which …more
    Gollhofer, A., Schmidtbleicher D., Quintern J., and Dietz V.
  • Grip and pinch strength: norms for 6- to 19-year-olds
    The purpose of this study was to establish normative data for 6- to 19-year-olds on four tests of hand strength. The Jamar dynamometer was used to measure grip strength and a pinch gauge was used to …more
    Mathiowetz, V., Wiemer DM, and Federman SM.
  • Human Tolerance to Impact Conditions as Related to Motor Vehicle Design
    This report reviews current(Footnote 1) quantitative data on human tolerance levels without recommending specific limits. Data developed on humans (including cadavers) are presented where available; …more
  • Biomechanics of running shoes
     Nigg, BM
  • Injury-induced plasticity of the flexor reflex in chronic decerebrate rats
    The hindlimb-flexor-withdrawal reflex elicited by stimulation of the skin of the hindpaw has been examined in chronic decerebrate rats. This flexor reflex manifests as a typical phasic avoidance …more
    Woolf, CJ, and McMahon SB
  • Analysis of Fundamental Human Movement Patterns Through the Use of In-Depth Antagonistic Muscle Models
    A nonlinear eighth-order agonist-antagonist muscle model is identified, based on engineering analysis and design criteria, as the desired structure for the broad-range study of a variety of …more
    Winters, JM, and Stark L.
  • Methods and Experience in CAD of Large-Displacement Mechanical Systems.
     Chase, M. A.
  • Sport Shoes and Playing Surfaces
     et al. Clark T.E., and et al
  • Head and Neck Injury Criteria and Tolerance Levels
     Ommaya, AK, and Goldsmith W.
  • Sports Shoes and Playing Surfaces
     Clarke, TE
  • Reflex control of bipedal gait in man
     Bergego C, Pierrot-Deseilligny E., and Mazieres L.
  • The Running Shoe Book
     Cavenaugh, P. R.
  • Rider Skill Influences on Motorcycle Maneuvering
     Rice, RS
  • Lateral- Directional Motorcycle Dynamics and Rider Control
     Weir, DH, and Zellner JW
  • HYBRID III – A Biomechanically Based Crash Test Dummy
    This paper describes a new generation anthropomorphic dummy with component dynamic responses which approximate available biomechanics data. This experimental test dummy, Hybrid III, is based on the …more
    Foster, JK, Kortge JO, and Wolanin MJ
  • Function of segmental reflexes in the control of stepping in cockroaches and cats.
     Pearson, KG, and Duysens J.
  • The Physiology of the Joints
     Kapandji, IA
  • Biomechanics of Sport
     Miller, D. I., and et al
  • Man-Machine Dynamics in the Stabilization of Single-Track Vehicles
     Eaton, DJ
  • The Dynamic Behavior of the Head and Cervical Spine During Whiplash
     McKenzie, JA, and Williams JF
  • The Stability and Control of Motorcycles
    Mathematical models of a motorcycle and rider dependent on three alternative assumptions concerning the tyre behaviour are developed. Stability characteristics deduced from them are compared, and …more
    Sharp, RS
  • Control Of Walking And Running By Means Of Electrical Stimulation Of The Mesencephalon
     Shik, ML, Severin FV, and Orlovsky GN
  • Controlled automobile rear end collisions – an investigation of related engineering and medical phenomena
     Severy, DM, Mathewson JH, and Bechtol CO